Wayne and Christina

Addenda and Corrigenda to
The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide
Revised and Enlarged Edition (2017)
Vols. 2 & 3: Reader’s Guide

by Christina Scull and Wayne G. Hammond

Elsewhere on this site may be read addenda and corrigenda to vol. 1, the Chronology (2017 edition), and a list of topics in the Reader’s Guide (2017). References to lines or paragraphs are relative to the cited page, not to the named entry. Significant revisions of addenda or corrigenda (as opposed to revisions of the Reader’s Guide proper) are marked thus: [REVISED]. Hyperlinks are included selectively, to lead to further (especially pictorial) material; for additional links, see the supplemental bibliography of sources.

p. xxiv, col. 1 at bottom: Insert line break between ‘“The Koivienéni Manuscript”’ and ‘Lancashire Fusiliers’.

p. 6, entry for Ace Books Controversy: The Ace Books affair was also covered extensively in the fan journal Niekas. In no. 15 (12 March 1966) editor Ed Meskys quotes (p. 48) a letter by Donald A. Wollheim which had appeared in another fan publication, Yandro. In this Wollheim comments that both Tolkien and his publishers complained about the Ace Books edition on the basis of courtesy, that there had been no advance notice of the edition, rather than about the lack of payment to Tolkien or Allen & Unwin. This, Wollheim concludes, ‘is a British upper class gimmick’, and adds: ‘Of course, behind this scream of discourtesy lies the fact that had we told Tolkien in advance, they would have acted to rush out an edition of their own (presumably through Ballantine) a lot earlier and quite probably have beaten us to the draw with the second and third volumes (since we did not start production of these until a month after our first was on sale).’ Much ruder comments follow, including a statement of Wollheim’s mistaken belief that Tolkien had been forced to underwrite publication of The Lord of the Rings by Allen & Unwin with his own money, thus making the publisher into ‘the lowest type . . . a vanity house’. In fact, Tolkien had done nothing of the sort, but agreed with Allen & Unwin that he would not receive royalties until his book made back its costs, after which he would receive royalties at fifty per cent, in the event a very lucrative deal. Wollheim felt that Tolkien, whom he thought was out of touch in an academic ivory tower, would have done better if he had had ‘a tough American-type literary agent’.

Meskys also summarizes statements that Donald Wollheim made at a party in San Francisco in 1965. Wollheim had never read The Lord of the Rings, but only dipped into one volume which he did not find exciting. Ace Books did not expect to make money selling the book, but hoped to use it to sell their line in places such as college bookstores, where they had not been able to break in. (At that time in the United States, paperback genre fiction, such as science fiction, often with ‘lurid’ covers, was considered by some to be ‘inappropriate’ literature, and if not outright banned, at least disapproved.) Distribution of The Lord of the Rings was in fact limited, concentrated on university towns. Meskys recounted some of these points earlier, in Niekas 12 (15 June 1965), p. 77, where it is said that Ace Books expected to keep The Lord of the Rings in print indefinitely, as a ‘prestige’ title, supported by sales of their other publications; but there Wollheim is reported to have said that the edition would eventually, after many years, turn a profit by itself.

Ed Meskys’ comments in Niekas 12 and Niekas 15 reflect the confusion and mixed emotions Lord of the Rings enthusiasts must have felt in 1965–6 during the Ace Books affair. Donald Wollheim’s argument, that The Lord of the Rings had fallen into the public domain in the United States due to oversights by Tolkien’s publisher, was more or less accepted as fact, but Ace Books, Allen & Unwin, and Houghton Mifflin were criticized for ‘posturing’ in their public statements. It was a pity, Meskys thought in Niekas 12, that Tolkien was receiving no payment for the Ace Books edition, but he seems to have accepted Wollheim’s argument that Ace had no obligation to pay, and praised them for publishing The Lord of the Rings in paperback so that it would be available in a broader market. By Niekas 15, however, Meskys came to the conclusion that whatever the circumstances, Ace Books’ actions were morally wrong, because they had taken Tolkien’s creation without permission and deprived him of legitimate income. Even so, he also took to task Allen & Unwin and Houghton Mifflin for their failure properly to deal with copyright, thus allowing the situation to develop.

For comments on Jack Gaughan’s covers for the Ace Books edition, see p. 563 in the article for ‘Illustration’.

pp. 23–4, entry for Adaptations: The paper quoted here by Janet Brennan Croft has been published in Fantasy Fiction into Film: Essays, ed. Leslie Stratyner and James R. Keller (2007). The quotations, with one trivial difference in text, appear on p. 11.

p. 103, entry for Thomas Kenneth Barnsley, l. 2: Barnsley entered King Edward’s School in January 1908.

p. 113, second paragraph: The printed map of Middle-earth removed from The Lord of the Rings and annotated by Tolkien and Baynes was reproduced in Catherine McIlwaine, Tolkien: Maker of Middle-earth (2018), pp. 382–3, and in McIlwaine, Tolkien Treasures (2018), pp. 138 (complete), 139 (detail). The finished poster-map, A Map of Middle-earth, was reproduced in Tolkien: Maker of Middle-earth, p. 385, and in Tolkien Treasures, pp. 136 (complete), 137 (detail). Baynes’s original art for her Map of Middle-earth and for There and Back Again is held in the Bodleian Library, Oxford; both works were displayed in the Bodleian Library’s Tolkien exhibition in 2018.

p. 130, final paragraph: Also see further, Andy Orchard, ‘Found in Translation: Tolkien’s “Beowulf”‘, Oxford English 3 (2014), pp. 16–19.

p. 132, entry for Beowulf: The Monsters and the Critics: On Tolkien’s points regarding the pagan and the Christian in the Anglo-Saxon world, Tolkien wrote to his colleague Bruce Mitchell: ‘I think we fail to grasp imaginatively the pagan “heroic” temper, the almost animal pride and ferocity of “nobles” and champions on the one hand; or on the other the immense relief and hope of Christian ethical teaching amidst a world with savage values’ (quoted in the introduction by Bruce Mitchell to an edition of Beowulf, translated by Kevin Crossley-Holland (1968)).

p. 165, third paragraph: On Edwards’ biography, see further, Nelson Goering’s perceptive review in Journal of Inklings Studies 7, no. 1 (April 2017), pp. 133–7.

p. 205, ll. 5–8: We should have said more explicitly that Tolkien owned a copy of Johnston’s Writing & Illuminating, & Lettering, which was inherited by Christopher Tolkien. Although he may well have used other manuals or instruction sheets, Tolkien certainly used Johnston’s book. The design for the decorative title border of The Front Door, an illustration for The Hobbit (Artist and Illustrator, fig. 135; Art of The Hobbit, fig. 76), is adapted from Writing & Illuminating, & Lettering, fig. 87.

pp. 229–32, entry for Children: In his blog post ‘Tolkien, Trains and Two Discoveries: Meccano and Hornby’, Tolkieniano, 25 November 1917, Oronzo Cilli deduces that the toy trains owned by the Tolkien boys were in the Hornby line made by Meccano, long a popular brand. ‘Hornby’ is mentioned in the ‘Father Christmas’ letter for 1932, in wording which suggests that the brand of trains, or accessories, was not always available for ‘Father Christmas’ to bring as gifts.

Cilli notes a classified advertisement in the March 1933 number of Meccano Magazine placed by ‘Tolkien, 20, Northmoor Road, Oxford’, offering ‘cash for four C.C.B. Red or Yellow “Break”’; other notices in the same magazine spell out ‘C.C.B.’ as Clark’s Creamed Barley, a popular cereal advertised as the ‘all-British breakfast’. The request appears to refer to reproduction hoardings to be added to a realistic model train layout. Cilli also comments that ‘M. Tolkien’ is listed in the June 1933 Meccano Magazine as a winner of a consolation prize in a ‘Popular Photo Contest’. Michael Tolkien was evidently member number 30992 of the ‘Hornby Railway Company’ fan club. Several local chapters of the club existed in Oxford during Michael’s boyhood; Cilli speculates that Michael joined in 1932 or 1933.

p. 290, ll. 12–13: Somerville College Chapel Addresses and Other Papers includes a memoir of Helen Darbishire and a list of her published writing.

p. 290, entry for Martin Cyril D’Arcy: A volume of Father D’Arcy’s reminiscences, Laughter and the Love of Friends, was edited by William S. Abell and published in 1991. It includes an account of a talk by Hilaire Belloc at the Oxford chaplaincy, at which Tolkien was present. Belloc ‘came out with one [of] his pet themes: that the Anglo-Saxons were utterly unimportant in the history of England’. On this point ‘Tolkien disagreed profoundly’. D’Arcy recalls that Tolkien

was sitting just in front of me, and I saw him writhing as Belloc came out with some of his more extreme remarks. So during the interval, I said to him, ‘Oh, Tolkien, now you’ve got your chance. You’d better tackle him.’ He looked at me and said, ‘Gracious me! Do you think I would tackle Belloc unless I had my whole case very carefully prepared?’ He knew Belloc would always pull some fact out of his sleeve which would disconcert you! Now, that was a tremendous tribute from probably the greatest authority in the world at the time on that particular subject. [pp. 112–13]

pp. 322–5, entry for Éalá Éarendel Engla Beorhtast: It is interesting, though in regard to Tolkien probably irrelevant, to note that Charles William Stubbs, then Dean of Ely Cathedral and later Bishop of Truro, published a poem in 1899 (in his Byrhtnoth’s Prayer and Other Poems, London: T. Fisher Unwin), ‘The Carol of the Star’, in which Earendel is mentioned throughout in refrains: ‘Hail Earendel, / Brightest of Angels!’ and ‘Godlight be with us, / Hail Earendel!’ The first verse reads:

They came three Kings who rode apace,
To Bethlem town by God’s good grace:
      Hail Earendel,
      Brightest of Angels!
Pardie! It was a duteous thing,
Wise men to worship childë King:
      Godlight be with us,
      Hail Earendel!

Stubbs understood that Earendel was the ‘mythic name’ of the Star of Bethlehem, but this seems to be nowhere else attested.

pp. 345–52, entry for Environment: See also *Power, into which come related issues regarding the Machine.

p. 437, l. 3 from bottom: For ‘c. 1968’ read ‘c. 1968’.

pp. 449–50, entry for Hugh Reginald Freston: Like Tolkien, Freston was a contributor to the collection *Oxford Poetry 1915, with the poems ‘A Girl’s Song’ and ‘Sometimes I Wonder’.

p. 453, entry for Robert Quilter Gilson, final paragraph: Gilson joined the 11th Battalion of the Suffolk Regiment, recruited entirely in the city and county of Cambridge and known as the Cambridgeshire Pals, or Cambridgeshires. His commission as second lieutenant is dated 28 November 1914.

p. 454, l. 4: Gilson was promoted to full lieutenant as of 8 January 1916. Accounts vary as to whether the 11th Suffolk departed for France on 7 or 8 January; John Garth states the latter, and we are inclined to accept that date.

pp. 464–6, entry for Eric Valentine Gordon: Jean Barman writes in Sojourning Sisters: The Lives and Letters of Jessie and Annie McQueen (2003; Annie McQueen was E.V. Gordon’s mother) that Gordon and Tolkien ‘shared personal attributes that may have drawn them together’ at Oxford and especially Leeds, besides ‘their common interest in philology, or linguistics’. ‘They were colonials’, Gordon having been born in Canada, Tolkien in South Africa. ‘They lost their fathers when young . . . and were thereafter managed by strong women. They were men of small stature and had been largely home schooled, being thereby, more than usually, left to their own devices. All of these factors may explain their escape into languages existing only in the imagination [i.e. not currently spoken or written], including Old and Middle English’ and Old Norse (Old Icelandic). Barman puts Gordon’s life into an interesting family context, though her comments on Tolkien are drawn largely from existing accounts.

p. 501, entry for The History of Middle-earth: In 2002 Christopher Tolkien’s indexes to the twelve volumes were compiled by Helen Armstrong and published as a separate volume, The History of Middle-earth Index. The original index entries remain distinct, as originally published, but appear in sequence. A list of corrigenda to the index was published by Morgan Thomsen on his blog Mythoi, 26 March 2012.

pp. 511–13, entry for The Hobbit: According to Catherine McIlwaine in Tolkien: Maker of Middle-earth (2018), p. 290, Tolkien’s son John ‘recorded in his diary for New Year’s Day 1930, “In the Afternoon we played in the Nursery. After tea Daddy read ‘The Hobbit’.”‘ From this evidence it is clear that Tolkien’s memory of writing the first words of The Hobbit in 20 Northmoor Road, to which the Tolkien family moved (from no. 22) on 14 January 1930, cannot be correct, and that his story was already in development by the end of 1929. Thus, Christopher Tolkien’s 1937 remarks on The Hobbit to Father Christmas, that his father ‘read it to John, Michael, and me in our winter “reads” after tea in the evening’, and his brother Michael’s contention that The Hobbit was begun (as a story told to the Tolkien sons) no later than 1929 (see p. 513), are now confirmed; but also, we are now able to account better for Tolkien’s various comments that after writing the first line of the story, ‘for some years I got no further than the production of Thror’s Map’ (p. 511), that the story ‘unfolded itself gradually’ (p. 512), and that as it was told in serial form, his youngest sons ‘had to grow up to it successively’ (p. 512). It still cannot be certain, however, precisely when Tolkien wrote the first words of The Hobbit, and when he completed the story in its published form.

p. 563, second paragraph, entry for Illustration: In Niekas 13 (15 September 1965) Jack Gaughan commented that it was his error alone that the cover to the Ace Books Two Towers depicted a Nazgûl on a flying horse rather than a ‘pterodactyl’. He had had to read the second and third volumes of The Lord of the Rings and lay out the covers on a short deadline, and therefore could not read them carefully. Ed Meskys had noted in Niekas 12 (15 June 1965) that most fan artists depicted the Nazgûl beasts ‘as impossibly large Pterodactyls’ (p. 78). Tolkien commented in a 1958 letter that he did not intend these creatures to be actual pterodactyls, though they were pterodactyl-like.

In ‘The Ace Tolkien Covers’, Niekas 16 (late June 1966), Gaughan described at length his process for making the Ace Book covers. Commissioned to illustrate a cover for The Fellowship of the Ring, he borrowed a copy from a neighbour and also read The Hobbit in a public library copy, neither of which he had read previously. He had only a weekend to produce art for the first cover, and later only two weeks to produce the second and third covers. ‘I decided that Tolkien fans would buy it if it were printed upside down and backwards, but how were we to get this book to people who were not Tolkien fans? So it was ME who eliminated the hairy Hobbits from the covers and the fairy forests. I was afraid that should I have illustrated the stories as I think they should be illustrated, we’d miss the market . . . the S.F. [science fiction] and fantasy reader who hadn’t read the books. So I chose scenes wherein I could minimize the fairy-tale visual qualities and play up those which related to S.F. as it is now being sold’ (p. 47). Because he could not possibly have read The Two Towers and The Return of the King as quickly as needed, he consulted his friend Lin Carter, who summarized and advised, but was not able to show the finished paintings to Carter before they had to go to the publisher.

‘I shall not say I have no opinions on the morals involved in this business [the Ace Books affair] (which made themselves known to me as this whole thing blossomed after the production of the first volume),’ Gaughan writes (Niekas 16, p. 49), ‘but I intend to keep my unlettered opinions thereon to myself. But I rather doubt I could have passed up the opportunity to work on books like those were it handed to me by the devil himself. (Incidentally, in spite of what some people tell me they think, it was not handed to me by the devil himself.)’

p. 600, entry for King Edward’s School, Birmingham: The urban environment in which the school was situated while on New Street, and which Tolkien experienced as a pupil, is expressed in the final verse of the school song (by Alfred Hayes and A. Somervell):

Here no classic grove secludes us, here abides no cloistered calm;
Not the titled nor the stranger, wrestles here to gain the palm;
Round our smoke-encrusted precincts labour’s turbid river runs;
Builders of this burly city temper here their strenuous sons.

The verse was removed from the song when the school moved to Edgbaston, because it was no longer strictly true.

p. 713, second paragraph, entry for The Lord of the Rings: Also in regard to Tolkien’s letter of 31 August, it was this message in which he appears first to have used in correspondence the title of his new work: ‘I have begun again on the sequel to the “Hobbit” – The Lord of the Ring [sic]’ (Letters, p. 40). Otherwise, around this time he continued to refer to ‘the sequel to The Hobbit’, until his letter to C.A. Furth of 2 February in which he mentions The Lord of the Rings, plural, as the title of his work; and after this it is used frequently and naturally.

p. 735, l. 3: For ‘BBC Channel 4’ read ‘Channel 4’.

p. 755, entry for Ronald Buchanan McCallum: To McCallum’s writings, add: Public Opinion and the Last Peace (1944). In this he acknowledges Tolkien’s assistance in suggesting a connection between pacifist and passive-resistance.

pp. 761–2, entry for Josef Madlener: Stefan Borgschulze informs us that the postcard series Gestalten aus Märchen und Sage includes reproductions of Madlener’s Der Frühling (‘The Spring’), Waldmärchen (‘Forest Fairy-tale’), Die Bergfee (‘The Mountain Fay’), Der Berggeist, Rübezahl, and Hubertushirsch (‘Hubertus’ Stag’), and that it was published in 1935. There were, however, earlier postcard series which featured art by Madlener, and it is evident that, if Der Berggeist was truly the inspiration for Gandalf, Tolkien must have acquired a reproduction somewhat earlier than 1935. See further, Joseph Kiermeier-Debre and Fritz Franz Vogel, Josef Madlener: Mein Kosmos (2007).

p. 762, third paragraph: Der Berggeist is also reproduced in colour in Tolkien: Maker of Middle-earth, p. 65.

p. 790, l. 6 from bottom: For ‘in the former’ read ‘in the former (*Oxford Poetry 1915)’.

pp. 792–4, entry for Francis Xavier Morgan: José Manuel Ferrández Bru has published a book-length biography of Father Francis, ‘Uncle Curro’: J.R.R. Tolkien’s Spanish Connection (2018), in part incorporating earlier writings we cite in our article. He describes Father Francis as one of Tolkien’s ‘leading guides’ in both his faith and his studies; ‘indeed, he was primarily responsible for ensuring that Tolkien attended Oxford University, thanks to his financial support and, indirectly, giving his initial opposition to Tolkien’s relationship with the woman who later would become his wife’ (p. xii). ‘Uncle Curro’ (‘Curro’ was a family nickname, the Andalusian colloquial equivalent of ‘Francis’) expands our knowledge of the background and early years of Father Francis, demonstrating that Humphrey Carpenter’s description of him as ‘half Welsh and half Anglo-Spanish (his mother’s family were prominent in the sherry trade)’ (Biography, p. 27) is inadequate. Born Francisco Javier Morgan-Osborne, his father was of Welsh ancestry, but English for all intents and purposes, of a family of wine merchants who had close ties to producers in Spain. His mother’s parents were Spanish and English; like his mother, young Francisco was raised Roman Catholic. In time, his name would be shortened (omitting his maternal surname) and anglicized, as he attended the Oratory School in Birmingham and pursued Catholic studies in London and Louvain. He became an Oratorian novitiate in 1877 and was ordained a priest in 1883, joining the Community of the Birmingham Oratory shortly afterward.

Ferrández Bru sees ‘a covert and unjust animosity’ towards Father Francis among Tolkien biographers because the priest had taken a ‘firm stance against a young love with poor prospects (at that moment) for Tolkien’s career and, in general, for his future’ (p. xii). This is certainly the attitude of Joseph Pearce in Tolkien: Man and Myth (1998) and of Michael White in Tolkien: A Biography (2001), but not by Humphrey Carpenter in Biography or Raymond Edwards in Tolkien (2014); the latter especially defends Father Francis against any charge of tyranny. Ferrández Bru also asserts that the perceived image of Father Francis as unpleasant, petty, and shortsighted is more stereotype than reality, though even in his own account it seems to have a basis in truth. He suggests that Tolkien’s Middle-earth writings have parallels with Spanish Historical Romanticism, and makes a comparison between one of Tolkien’s riddles in The Hobbit, “Voiceless it cries, / wingless flutters,” and a very similar riddle composed by Father Francis’s great-aunt, the novelist Cecilia Böhl de Faber.

‘Uncle Curro’ includes previously unpublished memories of Father Francis by Priscilla Tolkien, two family trees, and a selection of photographic portraits and reproductions.

pp. 803–14, entry for Mortality and immortality: Also see further, Amy Amendt-Raduege, ‘The Sweet and the Bitter’: Death and Dying in J.R.R. Tolkien’s The Lord of the Rings (2018).

pp. 814–15, entry for Robert Patrick Ruthven Murray: For ‘(b. 1925)’ read ‘(1925–2018)’. The son of Congregationalist missionaries, Father Murray spent his childhood in China, then attended Eltham College and Taunton School. He entered Oxford after a year’s intensive study of Persian. His conversion to Roman Catholicism came after a period in which he observed the Anglican faith. Before entering the Society of Jesus novitiate he taught for a year at Beaumont College; and during his Jesuit studies he taught Classics at St Ignatius College, Stamford Hill. He was skilled in Latin, Greek, Hebrew, and Aramaic, as well as in many European languages, and was a specialist in Syriac. At Heythrop College, ‘when he gave the first lecture in the brand-new post-Vatican II theology course . . . he offered to read the essays of a remarkably international gang of students in whatever language they preferred – and then added, sheepishly, that he could manage “a little Romanian”, if necessary’ (Michael Barnes S.J., ‘Robert Murray S.J.’, The Tablet, 5 May 2018, p. 29). He is remembered as a conscientious and influential teacher, who if he had been less so, might have published more. ‘For years he was working on a book on prophecy, a topic that touched him deeply; if he had not been so thorough in his scholarship and less daunted by the enormity of the enterprise, it might have seen the light of day. Nevertheless, with his extraordinary command of the sources, he kept up a steady trickle of scholarly studies, many of which have been the basis for others to build on’ (Barnes, p. 29).

pp. 936–44, entry for Oxford, University of: It may be useful to add to this section (‘University Institutions and Officials’) an explanation of common room as it applies to Oxford (and more generally to universities). The term is applied both to a physical space, as in ‘a meeting was held in the Common Room’, and to a group of members who gather to dine or otherwise to meet for a purpose. In both senses, as a named space or a named group, it is commonly capitalized, and we have intended it to be so in the Companion and Guide, though Tolkien did not always do so in letters. An Oxford college typically has a Junior Common Room, for undergraduates, and a Senior Common Room, for academics and graduates. Each may have its own rules and criteria for membership. For example, a January 1950 printed notice issued by the Exeter College Senior Common Room included as Full Members ‘Fellows of the College, past or present, Honorary Fellows, and Lecturers living in College’, while Extra Members included ‘Masters of Arts of the College, and others [who] may be elected’, and ‘Old Members of the College who are members of other Common Rooms may be elected as Extra Members without Entrance Fee’, normally 3 guineas. In January 1950 Tolkien (then attached to Merton, previously attached to Pembroke, and with a B.A. from Exeter) was listed as an Extra Member of the Exeter Senior Common Room.

p. 974, entry for Ralph Stuart Payton: According to the King Edward’s School online Roll of Honour, Payton enlisted in the Birmingham Pals already in 1914, along with his friend *T.K. Barnsley. He rose first to the rank of sergeant, then was commissioned as a second lieutenant and machine gun officer. He was sent to France as a full lieutenant in November 1915. His death on the Somme on 22 July 1916 was between High Wood and Delville Wood.

p. 996, l. 13: For ‘Oxford Poetry 1915’ read ‘*Oxford Poetry 1915’.

pp. 1009–13, entry for Power: Jonathan S. McIntosh writes in his wide-ranging discussion of Tolkien and St Thomas Aquinas that ‘the difference between true art and the tyranny of domination is that the one seeks to shepherd things as they are, cultivating and adorning those properties already inherent in them by virtue of their createdness, whereas the other imposes upon things one’s own godlike order and purposes’ (The Flame Imperishable: Tolkien, St. Thomas, and the Metaphysics of Faërie (2017), p. 240). Referring to Tolkien’s letter to Milton Waldman, McIntosh submits that the use of Machine or Magic to transcend natural limitations ‘is the relevant mythological, theological, and metaphysical context for Tolkien’s whole polemic against modern industrialization: its lust after “devices” and “apparatuses” for the more efficient control of nature is nothing less than a continuation of what for both Tolkien and St. Thomas was the primeval and diabolical quest for the creational power of God, whereby one might “bring into Being things of his own”’ (p. 241). This is the ‘theological subtext to Sauron’s Ring, which is in its own turn a symbol of all forms of tyrannous technology’, and ‘helps make further sense of Tolkien’s claim that the central conflict in The Lord of the Rings, a book that never mentions the Creator, is nevertheless “about God, and His sole right to divine honour” (Letters, p. 243). The question posed by the Ring, in essence, is the question of who among creatures has the right to “play God,” to which the entire quest of the Fellowship to destroy the Ring is the implicit answer, namely, that only God has the right to play God’ (p. 241).

pp. 1053–62, entry for Reading: Lists of books owned by Tolkien are included in a blog post by Jason Fisher, ‘Scattered Leaves’, 21 October 2015.

p. 1082, entry for Religion: ‘In Tolkien, St. Thomas, and the Metaphysics of Faërie (2017) Jonathan S. McIntosh studies in depth the influence of St Thomas Aquinas on Tolkien. ‘Structuring my discussion around Tolkien’s creation-myth, the Ainulindalë’, he writes,

I have attempted not simply to analyze Tolkien’s fiction in light of it, but also to show how the latter purposefully incarnates such important Thomistic themes as the relationship between faith and reason; the being, attributes, and persons of the divine Creator; the simultaneous realism or mind-independence and yet inherent intelligibility of all created being; the realization or fulfillment of intelligible form or essence in and through a thing’s real act of existence; the dependence of artistic sub- or ‘con’-creation on the Creator’s prior, exclusive act of creation; the anthropological significance of angels; and the metaphysics of evil.

But ‘far from Tolkien’s metaphysics being narrowly reducible to St. Thomas’s, the nature of his Thomism often lies as much in his creative departures from or innovations upon the thought of the angelic doctor as it does in his overt debt to it’. McIntosh conceives the influence of St Thomas on Tolkien in terms of providing ‘an inherited, trustworthy, yet always tacitly assumed, intellectual benchmark or framework by which Tolkien might both the more effectively determine what was metaphysically necessary, and within those parameters the more keenly discern what was metaphysically and therefore sub-creatively possible’ (pp. 261–2).

p. 1083, second paragraph: Claudio A. Testi’s 2013 essay has been superseded by his book-length study of paganism and Christianity in Tolkien’s works, Pagan Saints in Middle-earth (2018).

p. 1092, ll. 15–16: For ‘(with Tolkien)’ read ‘(*Oxford Poetry 1915, with Tolkien)’.

p. 1157, l. 17: For ‘may written a little’ read ‘may have written a little’.

p. 1173: The running head is missing. It should read the silmarillion (book) as on the facing page.

p. 1210, penultimate paragraph: Smith had joined the Oxford University Officer Training Corps in October 1914. The 19th Battalion of the Lancashire Fusiliers was also known as the 3rd Salford Pals.

p. 1211, l. 6: For ‘Oxford Poetry’ read ‘Oxford Poetry (*Oxford Poetry 1915)’.

p. 1213, l. 7 from bottom: G.B. Smith’s elder brother, Roger, had also attended King Edward’s School.

p. 1224, fourth paragraph: A tin of Player’s Gold Leaf Navy Cut was displayed with some of Tolkien’s pipes in the 2018 Bodleian Library exhibition Tolkien: Maker of Middle-earth.

p. 1248, l. 5: For ‘consciously or nor’ read ‘consciously or not’.

p. 1249, l. 12 from bottom: For ‘paricularly’ read ‘particularly’.

p. 1249, l. 5 from bottom: For ‘inversigating’ read ‘investigating’.

p. 1381, l. 17: For ‘Oxford Poetry 1915 (*Goblin Feet)’ read ‘*Oxford Poetry 1915’.

p. 1440, entry for Women and marriage: Lisa Coutras includes chapters pertinent to this subject in her book Tolkien’s Theology of Beauty (2016), ‘Tolkien and Feminist Criticism’ and ‘The Transcendental Feminine’. Among other comments, she notes

that Tolkien never condones the treatment of women as possessions of men or sexual objects. In instances where women are mistreated, this is viewed negatively in the text.  For example, when Túrin’s homeland is overrun by Eastern Men, women are taken into forced marriages and treated as property. Later, when Túrin falls in among a band of outlaws, he prevents and condemns the attempted rape of a local woman. This group is viewed by the Elf Beleg as a fallen social group. Another example is Rohan in decline, when Wormtongue planned to take Éowyn into a forced marriage. In view of these examples, Tolkien perceived the objectification of women as morally wrong. [p. 203]

Coutras also comments that ‘Elvish society in particular is held up as Tolkien’s ideal, emulating a gender equality integrated with “otherness.” Looking to the customs of Elven society, men and women had equal choice and opportunity regarding the activities of life. Women were raised as equals in thought, choice, combat, and marriage’ (p. 206).

p. 1505, l. 10 from bottom: For ‘226–7’ read ‘227–8’.

p. 1562, add entry: Christopher, Joe R. ‘J.R.R. Tolkien, Narnian Exile’. Mythlore 15, no. 1, whole no. 55 (Autumn 1988), pp. 37–45; 15, no. 2, whole no. 56 (Winter 1988), pp. 17–23.

p. 1601, add entry: Ordway, Holly. ‘Tolkien, Morris, and the Dead Marshes: An Unrecognized Connection’. 19 November 2015. www.hollyordway.com/2015/11/19/tolkien-morris-connection/.

p. 1605, add entry: Rateliff, John D. ‘The Missing Women: J.R.R. Tolkien’s Lifelong Support for Women’s Higher Education’.  Croft and Donovan, Perilous and Fair: Women in the Works and Life of J.R.R. Tolkien, pp.  41–69.

p. 1606, add entry: Reid, Robin Anne. ‘The History of Scholarship on Female Characters in J.R.R. Tolkien’s Legendarium: A Feminist Bibliographic Essay’. Croft and Donovan, Perilous and Fair: Women in the Works and Life of J.R.R. Tolkien, pp.  13–40.

p. 1652, col. 2, l. 11, entry for Finland, replace with: ‘Finland c 344, 857, g 27, 588–9, 617, 1339, 1428; see also Finnish language; Kalevala’.

p. 1660, col. 1, entry for Hogan, J.J. (Jeremiah): For ‘459’ read ‘458–9’.

p. 1668, col. 1, l. 15 from bottom: For ‘Loom of Language’ read ‘Loom of Language, The’.

p. 1668, col. 2, l. 19, index entry for Lord of the Rings, The: Add ‘235’ before ‘425’.

p. 1675, col. 1, entry for Nobel Prize: For ‘596’ read ‘443, 596’.

p. 1686, col. 2, index entry for Scott, Walter: For ‘537’ read ‘536’.

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